In October 1946, the Government of India appointed a committee, which was entrusted with the responsibility of reviewing the plans made so far by the British Government, the work of the National Planning Committee and other planning proposals.
Ultimately this plan came into existence when the Planning Commission was constituted in the year 1950. The Board in its report of the year 1947 clearly expressed the view that proper development of large industries is possible only when the political units, whether it is the center or the states, agree to work according to a common plan.
This suggestion had a huge impact on the planning process in independent India.
Role of Co-operatives
Co-operation means working together for the benefit of all and achieving a common objective. The principle of co-operation is - All for Each and Each for All.
Characteristics of cooperative
1. Voluntary organization
2. Democratic organization
3. Self-reliance on the basis of mutual help.
4. Common Benefits
5. Complete Honesty and Total Integrity.
According to this theory, the economic power and possibilities of a single individual are limited. But when many people meet. So there is an unexpected increase in their economic power. In this way, through mutual cooperation, even a poor person can get those benefits, which are generally available only to the rich class.
Types of Co-operatives
Although, cooperatives are also found in other countries of the world. But, India's cooperative structure is the largest cooperative structure in the world. Various cooperative societies working under the cooperative system can be divided into two parts.
1. Co-operative Credit Societies
Co-operative credit societies have an important role in the field of rural credit, these societies provide loans at the village level.
2. Co-operative Non-Credit Societies
Co-operative Non-Credit Societies are working in various sectors such as - sugar production, purchase of wheat and jute, | Production and distribution of fertilizers, sale of oil, yarn production etc.
Advantages of Co-operatives
Since cooperatives work for the common benefit. Therefore, even a poor person can get those benefits, which are generally available only to the financially well-off people. Co-operative is such a security cover. It provides protection to farmers, artisans, laborers, and the below poverty line class from exploitative forces.
Diversification of Agriculture
With urbanization and opening up of the economy, living standards are improving, which is a sign of rising income levels. With increasing income levels, the demand for traditional cereals like rice and wheat does not increase in that proportion. In fact, their demand is gradually decreasing and in its place the consumption of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and dairy products is continuously increasing. With this change in the consumption pattern, the topic of diversification of agriculture came to the fore.
At the concept level, diversification of agriculture refers to many subjects, such as change in the use of resources, ie -
food production, in place of other agricultural activities such as fisheries, animal husbandry etc.
→ Use of resources in various and complementary activities in agriculture itself, → Flow from low-productivity agriculture to high-productivity areas like fruit and flower.
Benefit from diversification of agriculture
. will improve food security.
. Farmers' income will increase and stability will come.
. It will be possible to remove poverty.
. New employment opportunities will be created.
. Availability of scarce resources will improve.
. Exports will increase.
. Environmental protection will be possible.
In the long run, the trend of rapid development in agriculture will be strong, regional equities will increase and there will be stability in the agricultural production system.
Ministry of Rural Development
In the year 1947, the Department of Rural Development was established under the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and in the year 1979 it got the status of a Ministry under the name of Ministry of Rural Reconstruction. In January 1982, it was renamed as Ministry of Rural Development.
In 1985, it was again made a department in the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. In the year 1999, the Ministry of Rural Development was again established, under which at present, the Department of Rural Development and Land Resources is also there.
Rural Development and Panchayati Raj
Recognizing the important role of Panchayats in rural development, the 73rd Constitutional Amendment was made in the Constitution, through which the Panchayati Raj system was given constitutional status to provide uniformity, financial soundness and practicality. to be done .
The participation of rural people in rural development programs (like MNREGA etc.) has increased through Panchayats. The establishment of rural business centers and the use of online governance facilities by panchayats connects rural areas with the world community.
Participation in Panchayat elections has increased the participation of the people in self-government. Apart from this, the help given by Panchayats to self-help groups and women expresses the concept of community development. At present, 33% reservation has been given to women at all the three levels of Panchayats.
E-Panchayat is also included in the Rural Mission Mode Projects included under the National E-Governance Plan prepared in the year 2006. The main objective of e-Panchayat is to make complete reforms in the activities of Panchayati Raj Institutions to make them more transparent, accountable and effective.
In the 12th Five Year Plan, a proposal to make e-Panchayat Multi-Media Program a part of the Rajiv Gandhi Panchayat Empowerment Campaign was submitted and submitted to the Planning Commission (currently NITI Aayog).