Harappan culture : Bronze age civilization

 Harappan culture : Bronze age civilization 

Geographical Expansion 

This culture originated in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent in the Chalcolithic background.  The Harappan civilization is Bronze Age and the culture is Chalcolithic (Pre-Harappan).  It was named Harappan culture because it was first known in 1921 AD.  It was obtained from a modern site called Harappa located in Pakistan.

Rai Bahadur Dayaram Sahni under the direction of John Marshall, Director General of the Archaeological Department of India in 1921 AD.  of Harappa and Rakhaldas Banerjee in 1922 AD.  Excavated at Mohenjodaro.  The center of mature Harappan culture lies in Punjab and Sindh, mainly in the Indus Valley.  From here it expanded to the south and east.

The Harappan culture included not only the parts of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan but also the marginal parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh.  It extended from Jammu in the north to the mouth of the Narmada in the south and from the Makran coast of Balochistan in the west to Meerut in the east. 

 Determination of time 

Determining the date of Indus civilization is a controversial subject of Indian.  Archeology This civilization is seen in a developed form from the beginning and its decline also seems to be accidental.  Nothing can be said with certainty in such a situation.  The first effort in this field was by John Marshall.  He in 1931 AD.  The date of this civilization in about 3250 BC.  to 2750 AD.  booked up .

The date of Harappan civilization is dated to 2350 BC by a new analysis method like radio carbon-14 (C-14).  to 1750 BC  It is believed that the most valid.

Four Geographical Sites of Harappa

 1. Manda - This site is situated on the southern bank of river Chenab in Akhnoor district.  It is the northernmost site of the developed Harappan civilization.  It was excavated in 1982.  It was done by Jagpati Joshi and Madhubala.  There are three cultural strata in Manda - Pre-Sindhav, developed-Sindhav and Uttara-Sindhav.  

2. Alamgirpur-  This site is situated on the banks of Hindon river (tributary of Yamuna) in Meerut district.  This site was discovered in 1958 by the Bharat Sevak Samaj Sanstha.  Its excavation work was done by Yagyadutt Sharma.  It is the easternmost site of the Indus Civilization.  

3. Daimabad -  This site is situated on the left bank of Pravara river in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra.  Daimabad is the southernmost site of the Indus civilization.

4. Sutkangedor - It is the westernmost site of the Harappan civilization situated on the banks of the Dashak river.  It was discovered in 1927 AD.  It was done by Sir Mark Aurel Stein.  The entire area of ​​Harappan culture is triangular and its area is 1,299,600 sq.km.  Is .  Only seven Sandhav sites have been named as cities, which are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Lothal, Kalibanga, Banawali and Dholavira.  Harappa in Punjab and Mohenjodaro (meaning mound of the dead) in Sindh both fall in Pakistan.  Both are 483 km from each other.  They were located far away and were connected by the river Indus.

Town Planning and Structures 

The main feature of the Harappan culture was its town planning system.  Both Harappa and Mohenjodaro had their own forts.  What was unique about buildings in cities was that they were arranged like a grid.  The roads cut each other at right angles and the cities were divided into several sections.  Houses were built in a straight line along the roads.  The doors opened to the streets or tributaries.  The building was also two storeys.  The houses had several rooms, kitchen, bathroom and a courtyard in the middle.  The most important public place of Mohenjodaro is the huge bath.  It is 11.88 m.  tall, 7.01 m.  wide and 2.43 m.  is deep.  There are stairs towards north and south to get down in it.  The floor of the bathroom is made of burnt bricks.  And in the middle of it was situated the bathing pool.  This huge bath was used for public ritual bathing.  John Marshall described the huge bath as a wonderful creation of the world.  This is the only evidence of water worship.

A granary has been found in Mohenjodaro, which is 45.71 meters long and 15.23 meters wide.  Six granaries have been found in the Harappan fort, which stand in two rows on brick platforms.  Each granary is 15.23 meters long and 6.09 meters wide.  The drainage system of Mohenjodaro was amazing.  Every small or big house in almost all the cities had a courtyard and a bathroom.  Wells have been found in many houses of Kalibanga.  The water from the houses used to flow down to the streets, where peacocks were built under them.  These peacocks were covered with planks of bricks and stones.  Manholes were also made in these peacocks of the roads.